Beginning with precursor lesions, aberrant DNA methylation marks the entire spectrum of prostate cancer progression. We mapped the global DNA methylation patterns in prostate tissues (n=17) and cells (n=2) from fifty nanograms of genomic DNA using Methylplex-Next Generation Sequencing (M-NGS). A Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based algorithm previously used for Chip-Seq data analysis(http://www.sph.umich.edu/csg/qin/HPeak) was used to locate peaks from mapped reads obtained in each sequencing run. The total methylation events in intergenic/intronic regions between benign adjacent and cancer tissues were comparable. While approximately 20% of all CpG islands (CGIs) (68,508) were methylated in tissues, promoter CGI methylation gradually increased from ~12.6% in benign samples to 19.3% and 21.8% in localized and metastatic cancer tissues. We found distinct patterns in promoter methylation around transcription start sites, where methylation occurred directly on the CGIs, flanking regions and on CGI sparse promoters. Among the 6,691 methylated promoters in prostate tissues, 2481 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are cancer specific and several previously studied targets were among them. A novel cancer specific DMR in WFDC2 promoter showed 77% methylation in cancer (17/22), 100% methylation in transformed prostate cell lines (6/6), none in the benign tissues (0/10) and normal PrEC cells. Integration of LNCaP DNA methylation and H3K4me3 data suggested a role for DNA methylation in alternate transcription start site utilization. While methylated promoters containing CGIs had mutually exclusive H3K4me3 modification, the histone mark was absent in CGI sparse promoters. Finally, we observed difference in methylation of LINE-1 elements between transcription factor ERG positive and negative cancers. The comprehensive methylome map presented here will further our understanding of epigenetic regulation of the prostate cancer genome. We mapped the global DNA methylation patterns in prostate tissues (n=17; data not available in GEO - being deposited in dbGaP for controlled access) and cells (n=2) from fifty nanograms of genomic DNA using Methylplex-Next Generation Sequencing (M-NGS). For replicate analysis in cell lines, a total of 4 runs were completed for PrEC prostate normal cell line, and 5 runs were completed for LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. For tissue samples, 2 benign prostate samples were ran twice on illumina next generation sequencing platform to access overall repeatability of M-NGS.
|Date made available||2011|