Abstract Background Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) are a growing threat. The objective of this study was to describe CRAB and CRPA epidemiology and identify factors associated with mortality and length of stay (LOS) post-culture. Methods This was a national retrospective cohort study of Veterans with CRAB or CRPA positive cultures from 2013 to 2018, conducted at Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital. Carbapenem resistance was defined as non-susceptibility to imipenem, meropenem and/or doripenem. Multivariable cluster adjusted regression models were fit to assess the association of post-culture LOS among inpatient and long-term care (LTC) and to identify factors associated with 90-day and 365-day mortality after positive CRAB and CRPA cultures. Results CRAB and CRPA were identified in 1,048 and 8,204 unique patients respectively, with 90-day mortality rates of 30.3% and 24.5% and inpatient post-LOS of 26 and 27 days. Positive blood cultures were associated with an increased odds of 90-day mortality compared to urine cultures in patients with CRAB (OR 6.98, 95% CI 3.55–13.73) and CRPA (OR 2.82, 95% CI 2.04–3.90). In patients with CRAB and CRPA blood cultures, higher Charlson score was associated with increased odds of 90-day mortality. In CRAB and CRPA, among patients from inpatient care settings, blood cultures were associated with a decreased LOS compared to urine cultures. Conclusions Positive blood cultures and more comorbidities were associated with higher odds for mortality in patients with CRAB and CRPA. Recognizing these factors would encourage clinicians to treat these patients in a timely manner to improve outcomes of patients infected with these organisms.
|Date made available||2022|