PROsetta: An R Package for Linking Patient-Reported Outcome Measures

  • Seung Choi (Contributor)
  • S. Lim (Contributor)
  • B.D. Schalet (Northwestern University) (Contributor)
  • Aaron James Kaat (Contributor)
  • David Cella (Contributor)



A common problem when using a variety of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for diverse populations and subgroups is establishing a harmonized scale for the incommensurate outcomes. The lack of comparability in metrics (e.g., raw summed scores vs. scaled scores) among different PROs poses practical challenges in studies comparing effects across studies and samples. Linking has long been used for practical benefit in educational testing. Applying various linking techniques to PRO data has a relatively short history; however, in recent years, there has been a surge of published studies on linking PROs and other health outcomes, owing in part to concerted efforts such as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) project and the PRO Rosetta Stone (PROsetta Stone®) project ( Many R packages have been developed for linking in educational settings; however, they are not tailored for linking PROs where harmonization of data across clinical studies or settings serves as the main objective. We created the PROsetta package to fill this gap and disseminate a protocol that has been established as a standard practice for linking PROs.
Date made available2021
PublisherSAGE Journals

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