Stakeholder perspectives to inform adaptation of a hypertension treatment program in primary healthcare centers in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria: a qualitative study

  • Rosemary C.B. Okoli (Creator)
  • Gabriel Shedul (Creator)
  • Lisa Ruth Hirschhorn (Creator)
  • Ikechukwu A. Orji (Creator)
  • Tunde M. Ojo (Creator)
  • Nonye B. Egenti (Creator)
  • Kasarachi Omitiran (Creator)
  • Blessing Akor (Creator)
  • Abigail S. Baldridge (Creator)
  • Mark D. Huffman (Creator)
  • Dike Ojji (Creator)
  • Namratha R Kandula (Creator)
  • Lisa R. Hirschhorn (Creator)
  • Mark D. Huffman (Creator)
  • Dike Ojji (Creator)



Abstract Background Implementing an evidence-based hypertension program in primary healthcare centers (PHCs) in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria is an opportunity to improve hypertension diagnosis, treatment, and control and reduce deaths from cardiovascular diseases. This qualitative research study was conducted in Nigerian PHCs with patients, non-physician health workers, administrators and primary care physicians to inform contextual adaptations of Kaiser Permanente Northern California's hypertension model and the World Health Organization’s HEARTS technical package for the system-level, Hypertension Treatment in Nigeria (HTN) Program. Methods Purposive sampling in 8 PHCs identified patients (n = 8), non-physician health workers (n = 12), administrators (n = 3), and primary care physicians (n = 6) for focus group discussions and interviews. The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) conceptual framework and Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) domains were used to develop semi-structured interviews (Appendix 1, Supplemental Materials) and coding guides. Content analysis identified multilevel factors that would influence program implementation. Results Participants perceived the need to strengthen four major health system inputs across CFIR domains for successful adaptation of the HTN Program components: (1) reliable drug supply and blood pressure measurement equipment, (2) enable and empower community healthcare workers to participate in team-based care through training and education, (3) information systems to track patients and medication supply chain, and (4) a primary healthcare system that could offer a broader package of health services to meet patient needs. Specific features of the PHCPI framework considered important included: accessible and person-centered care, provider availability and competence, coordination of care, and proactive community outreach. Participants also identified patient-level factors, such as knowledge and beliefs about hypertension, and financial and transportation barriers that could be addressed with better communication, home visits, and drug financing. Participants recommended using existing community structures, such as village health committees and popular opinion leaders, to improve knowledge and demand for the HTN Program. Conclusions These results provide information on specific primary care and community contextual factors that can support or hinder implementation and sustainability of an evidence-based, system-level hypertension program in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria, with the ultimate aim of scaling it to other parts of the country.
Date made available2021

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