Supplementary material from "Bioapatite in shark centra studied by wide-angle and by small-angle X-ray scattering"

  • Jun Sang Park (Creator)
  • J. D. Almer (Creator)
  • K. C. James (Creator)
  • L. J. Natanson (Creator)
  • Stuart R Stock (Creator)



Members of Subclass Elasmobranchii possess cartilage skeletons, the centra of many species are mineralized with a bioapatite but virtually nothing is known about the mineral's organization. This study employed high-energy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS, i.e. X-ray diffraction) to investigate the bioapatite crystallography within blocks cut from centra of four species (two carcharhiniform families, one lamniform family and 1-ID of the Advanced Photon Source). All species' crystallographic quantities closely matched and indicated a bioapatite closely related to that in bone. The centra's lattice parameters a and c were somewhat smaller and somewhat larger, respectively, than in bone. Nanocrystallite sizes (WAXS peak widths) in shark centra were larger than typical of bone, and little microstrain was observed. Compared to bone, shark centra exhibited SAXS D-period peaks with larger D magnitudes and D-period arcs with narrower azimuthal widths. The shark mineral phase, therefore, is closely related to that in bone but does possess real differences which likely affect mechanical property and which are worth further study.
Date made available2022
PublisherThe Royal Society

Cite this