Direct Replication of a research claim from Sandra & Otto, 2018 in Cognition

Project: Research project

Project Details


The claim selected for replication from Sandra & Otto (2018) is that large reward incentives increase the amount of effort exerted by low-NFC (Need for Cognition) individuals for task-switch costs, but decrease the amount of effort exerted by high-NFC individuals. This reflects the following from the paper’s abstract: “[A] low intrinsic motivation to expend effort (measured by Need for Cognition)—predicted larger increase in cognitive effort expenditure in response to monetary reward incentives, while individuals…with greater intrinsic motivation to expend effort —were less responsive to reward incentives.” In the original paper, cognitive effort was operationalized in terms of performance on a switching task that required focused attention. The claim was tested using mixed-effects regression with regressors for the influence of trial type (task switch versus task repeat), reward level, experimental block, and Need for Cognition scores upon log transformed reaction times in the task-switching paradigm. This yielded a significant three-way interaction, Trial type × reward × NFC, estimate = 0.0382, se= 0.0145, p = 0.008  
Effective start/end date10/9/208/31/21


  • Center for Open Science, Inc. (Sandra_20g//N660011924015)
  • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (Sandra_20g//N660011924015)


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