Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) occur in groundwater as mixtures of anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, and nonionic species, although few remediation technologies have been evaluated to assess the removal of different types of PFASs. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three β-cyclodextrin polymers (CDPs), an anion-exchange (AE) resin, and a cation-exchange (CE) resin for the removal of anionic, zwitterionic, and nonionic PFASs from water. We found that a CDP with a negative surface charge rapidly removes all zwitterionic PFASs with log KD values ranging between 2.4 and 3.1, and the CE resin rapidly removes two zwitterionic PFASs with log KD values of 1.8 and 1.9. The CDPs with a positive surface charge rapidly remove all anionic PFASs with log KD values between 2.7 and 4.1, and the AE resin removes all anionic PFASs relatively slowly with log KD values between 2.0 and 2.3. All adsorbents exhibited variable removal of the nonionic PFASs and some adsorption inhibition at higher pH values and in the presence of groundwater matrix constituents. Our findings provide insight into how adsorbents can be combined to remediate groundwater contaminated with complex mixtures of different types of PFASs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry