Astrocytes have a variety of roles in maintaining neural tissue physiology, including energetic support, uptake and metabolism of glutamate and secretion of neurotrophic factors. Glutamate toxicity has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders associated with conditions related to energy failure, and to elevation of glutamate extracellular levels in brain. Glucose is the main energetic substrate for brain cells but, in some circumstances, the ketone bodies are used as a supplementary source and have been suggested to be neuroprotective agents against seizure disorders. Here, we investigate some possible biochemical changes in astrocyte cultures induced by β-hydroxy-butyrate, the predominant blood ketone body. Its effect upon S100B secretion, astrocyte morphology and glutamate uptake was particularly investigated. S100B, a calcium-binding protein expressed and secreted by astrocytes, has neurotrophic activity and a possible role in epileptogenesis. Cell morphology was investigated by phase-contrast microscopy and immunocytochemistry for actin, GFAP and S100B. Our data show that β-hydroxy-butyrate induces dramatic changes in astrocyte morphology and, independent of this, causes changes in the extracellular content of S100B. We observed an increment in S100B 1 h after β-hydroxy-butyrate addition and a decrease 24 h later. No changes were observed in glutamate uptake. These astrocytic modifications may be associated with reduced neuronal excitability observed in the ketogenic condition.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Brain Research Bulletin|
|State||Published - Aug 30 2004|
- Ketogenic diet
- Stress fibres
ASJC Scopus subject areas