2022 roadmap on low temperature electrochemical CO2 reduction

Ifan E.L. Stephens*, Karen Chan, Alexander Bagger, Shannon W. Boettcher, Julien Bonin, Etienne Boutin, Aya K. Buckley, Raffaella Buonsanti, Etosha R. Cave, Xiaoxia Chang, See Wee Chee, Alisson H.M. da Silva, Phil de Luna, Oliver Einsle, Balázs Endrődi, Maria Escudero-Escribano, Jorge V. Ferreira de Araujo, Marta C. Figueiredo, Christopher Hahn, Kentaro U. HansenSophia Haussener, Sara Hunegnaw, Ziyang Huo, Yun Jeong Hwang, Csaba Janáky, Buddhinie S. Jayathilake, Feng Jiao, Zarko P. Jovanov, Parisa Karimi, Marc T.M. Koper, Kendra P. Kuhl, Woong Hee Lee, Zhiqin Liang, Xuan Liu, Sichao Ma, Ming Ma, Hyung Suk Oh, Marc Robert, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya, Jan Rossmeisl, Claudie Roy, Mary P. Ryan, Edward H. Sargent, Paula Sebastián-Pascual, Brian Seger, Ludmilla Steier, Peter Strasser, Ana Sofia Varela, Rafaël E. Vos, Xue Wang, Bingjun Xu, Hossein Yadegari, Yuxiang Zhou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


Electrochemical CO2 reduction (CO2R) is an attractive option for storing renewable electricity and for the sustainable production of valuable chemicals and fuels. In this roadmap, we review recent progress in fundamental understanding, catalyst development, and in engineering and scale-up. We discuss the outstanding challenges towards commercialization of electrochemical CO2R technology: energy efficiencies, selectivities, low current densities, and stability. We highlight the opportunities in establishing rigorous standards for benchmarking performance, advances in in operando characterization, the discovery of new materials towards high value products, the investigation of phenomena across multiple-length scales and the application of data science towards doing so. We hope that this collective perspective sparks new research activities that ultimately bring us a step closer towards establishing a low- or zero-emission carbon cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number042003
JournalJPhys Energy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2022


  • CO2 reduction
  • electrocatalysis
  • electrochemistry
  • solar fuels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • General Energy
  • Materials Chemistry


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