2,3-Diphenylthieno[3,4- b]pyrazines as Hole-Transporting Materials for Stable, High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

Shakil N. Afraj, Ding Zheng, Arulmozhi Velusamy, Weijun Ke, Shelby Cuthriell, Xiaohua Zhang, Yao Chen, Chenjian Lin, Jen Shyang Ni, Michael R. Wasielewski, Wei Huang, Junsheng Yu, Chun Huang Pan, Richard D. Schaller, Ming Chou Chen*, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Antonio Facchetti, Tobin J. Marks

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


High-performance and durable perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have advanced rapidly, enabled in part by the development of superior interfacial hole-transporting layers (HTLs). Here, a new series of 2,3-diphenylthieno[3,4-b]pyrazine (DPTP)-based small molecules containing bis- and tetrakis-triphenyl amino donors (1-3) was synthesized from simple, low-cost, and readily available starting materials. The matched energy levels, ideal surface topographies, high hole mobilities of 8.57 × 10-4cm2V-1S-1, and stable chemical structures of DPTP-4D (3) make it an effective hole-transporting material, delivering a PCE of 20.18% with high environmental, thermal, and light-soaking stability when compared to the reference HTL materials, doped Spiro-OMeTAD and PTAA in PSC n-i-p planar devices. Overall, these DPTP-based molecules are promising HTM candidates for the fabrication of stable PSCs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2118-2127
Number of pages10
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 10 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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