3-Dimensional Echocardiography: Latest Developments and Future Directions

Roberto M. Lang*, Karima Addetia, Akhil Narang, Victor Mor-Avi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


The ongoing refinements in 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography technology continue to expand the scope of this imaging modality in clinical cardiology by offering new features that stem from the ability to image the heart in its complete dimensionality. Over the years, countless publications have described these benefits and tested new frontiers where 3D echocardiographic imaging seemed to offer promising ways to improve patients’ care. These include improved techniques for chamber quantification and novel ways to visualize cardiac valves, including 3D printing, virtual reality, and holography. The aims of this review article are to focus on the most important developments in the field in the recent years, discuss the current utility of 3D echocardiography, and highlight several interesting future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1854-1878
Number of pages25
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2018


  • 3-dimensional ultrasound
  • cardiac imaging
  • ultrasound imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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