A general synthetic route to inherently luminescent and optically active 6-fold substituted C3-symmetric and asymmetric biphenyl-based trianglimines has been developed. The synthesis of these hexa-substituted triangular macrocycles takes advantage of a convenient method for the synthesis of symmetrically and asymmetrically difunctionalized biphenyl dialdehydes through a convergent two-step aromatic nucleophilic substitution-one-pot Suzuki-coupling reaction protocol. A modular [3+3] diamine-dialdehyde cyclocondensation reaction between both the symmetrically and asymmetrically difunctionalized-4,4′-biphenyldialdehydes with enantiomerically pure (1R,2R)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane was employed to construct the hexa-substituted triangular macrocycles. B97-D/6-311G(2d,p) density functional theory determined structures and X-ray crystallographic analysis reveal that the six substituents appended to the biphenyl legs of the trianglimine macrocycles adopt an alternating conformation not unlike the 1,3,5-alternate conformation observed for calixarenes. Reduction of the imine bonds using NaBH4 afforded the corresponding 6-fold substituted trianglamine without the need to alkylate the amine nitrogen atoms which could hinder their later use as metal coordination sites and without having to introduce asymmetric carbons.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry