3D-2D registration in mobile radiographs: Algorithm development and preliminary clinical evaluation

Yoshito Otake, Adam S. Wang, Ali Uneri, Gerhard Kleinszig, Sebastian Vogt, Nafi Aygun, Sheng Fu L. Lo, Jean Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


An image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented using radiographs acquired in the uncalibrated, unconstrained geometry of mobile radiography. The approach extends a previous method for six degree-of-freedom (DOF) registration in C-arm fluoroscopy (namely 'LevelCheck') to solve the 9-DOF estimate of geometry in which the position of the source and detector are unconstrained. The method was implemented using a gradient correlation similarity metric and stochastic derivative-free optimization on a GPU. Development and evaluation were conducted in three steps. First, simulation studies were performed that involved a CT scan of an anthropomorphic body phantom and 1000 randomly generated digitally reconstructed radiographs inposterior-anterior and lateral views. A median projection distance error (PDE) of 0.007 mm was achieved with 9-DOF registration compared to 0.767 mm for 6-DOF. Second, cadaver studies were conducted using mobile radiographs acquired in three anatomical regions (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) and three levels of source-detector distance (∼800, ∼1000 and ∼1200 mm). The 9-DOF method achieved a median PDE of 0.49 mm (compared to 2.53 mm for the 6-DOF method) and demonstrated robustness in the unconstrained imaging geometry. Finally, a retrospective clinical study was conducted with intraoperative radiographs of the spine exhibiting real anatomical deformation and image content mismatch (e.g. interventional devices in the radiograph that were not in the CT), demonstrating a PDE = 1.1 mm for the 9-DOF approach. Average computation time was 48.5 s, involving 687 701 function evaluations on average, compared to 18.2 s for the 6-DOF method. Despite the greater computational load, the 9-DOF method may offer a valuable tool for target localization (e.g. decision support in level counting) as well as safety and quality assurance checks at the conclusion of a procedure (e.g. overlay of planning data on the radiograph for verification of the surgical product) in a manner consistent with natural surgical workflow.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2075-2090
Number of pages16
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Feb 21 2015


  • geometric calibration
  • global Optimization
  • image-based 3D2D registration
  • image-guided interventions
  • image-guided surgery
  • mobile Radiography
  • patient safety
  • quality assurance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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