Aim: This study was done to explore the 3D geometry of the normal tricuspid annulus and compare it with the mitral annulus (MA), using real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) and newly developed 3D computer software. Methods: Thirteen left ventricular (LV) and 13 right ventricular (RV) volumetric images were obtained using RT3DE from normal subjects. LV and RV volumetric data were segmented into 16 rotational apical planes (angle increment = 11.25°) around the rotational axis from the apex through the center of two annuli, using newly developed 3D software (TomTec, Co., Munich, Germany). Two hinge points of the MA and the TA were traced in each plane during early and late systole. The MA and the TA were then automatically reconstructed with those 32 traced points. 3D surface (3DMAA, 3DTAA) and 2D projected areas (2DMAA, 2DTAA) of the annuli were calculated automatically as well, from those fitted data. For a comparison between the two annuli, the 3D and 2D area measurements of both annuli were corrected (c) according to the height of each patient (c2DMAA, c2DTAA, c3DMAA, and c3DTAA). Non-planarity of the annuli was estimated by their non-planar angles (MA: the angle between the anterior and posterior parts of the annulus; TA: the angle between the septal and free wall parts of the annulus). Results: The TA revealed a less non-planar saddle shape than did the MA, which had a significantly wider non-planar angle (167.7 ± 3.2 vs 145.5 ± 6.1°, p < 0.01) and a round or oval appearance on the projected view. The c2DTAA was significantly larger than the c2DMAA during early systole (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between the c3DTAA and c3DMAA during early and late systole (p > 0.01). Conclusion: We assessed the 3D geometry of the MA and the TA by 3D reconstruction using RT3DE and newly developed computer software. The TA had a less non-planar shape compared with the MA, with either a round or oval appearance on the projected view.
- Mitral annulus
- Tricuspid annulus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine