3D multifunctional integumentary membranes for spatiotemporal cardiac measurements and stimulation across the entire epicardium

Lizhi Xu, Sarah R. Gutbrod, Andrew P. Bonifas, Yewang Su, Matthew S. Sulkin, Nanshu Lu, Hyun Joong Chung, Kyung In Jang, Zhuangjian Liu, Ming Ying, Chi Lu, R. Chad Webb, Jong Seon Kim, Jacob I. Laughner, Huanyu Cheng, Yuhao Liu, Abid Ameen, Jae Woong Jeong, Gwang Tae Kim, Yonggang HuangIgor R. Efimov*, John A. Rogers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

262 Scopus citations


Means for high-density multiparametric physiological mapping and stimulation are critically important in both basic and clinical cardiology. Current conformal electronic systems are essentially 2D sheets, which cannot cover the full epicardial surface or maintain reliable contact for chronic use without sutures or adhesives. Here we create 3D elastic membranes shaped precisely to match the epicardium of the heart via the use of 3D printing, as a platform for deformable arrays of multifunctional sensors, electronic and optoelectronic components. Such integumentary devices completely envelop the heart, in a form-fitting manner, and possess inherent elasticity, providing a mechanically stable biotic/abiotic interface during normal cardiac cycles. Component examples range from actuators for electrical, thermal and optical stimulation, to sensors for pH, temperature and mechanical strain. The semiconductor materials include silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride, co-integrated with metals, metal oxides and polymers, to provide these and other operational capabilities. Ex vivo physiological experiments demonstrate various functions and methodological possibilities for cardiac research and therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3329
JournalNature communications
StatePublished - Feb 25 2014


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Xu, L., Gutbrod, S. R., Bonifas, A. P., Su, Y., Sulkin, M. S., Lu, N., Chung, H. J., Jang, K. I., Liu, Z., Ying, M., Lu, C., Webb, R. C., Kim, J. S., Laughner, J. I., Cheng, H., Liu, Y., Ameen, A., Jeong, J. W., Kim, G. T., ... Rogers, J. A. (2014). 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes for spatiotemporal cardiac measurements and stimulation across the entire epicardium. Nature communications, 5, [3329]. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4329