3D-Printable Fluoropolymer Gas Diffusion Layers for CO2 Electroreduction

Joshua Wicks, Melinda L. Jue, Victor A. Beck, James S. Oakdale, Nikola A. Dudukovic, Auston L. Clemens, Siwei Liang, Megan E. Ellis, Geonhui Lee, Sarah E. Baker, Eric B. Duoss, Edward H. Sargent*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


The electrosynthesis of value-added multicarbon products from CO2 is a promising strategy to shift chemical production away from fossil fuels. Particularly important is the rational design of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) assemblies to react selectively, at scale, and at high rates. However, the understanding of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in these assemblies is limited for the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR): particularly important, but incompletely understood, is how the GDL modulates product distributions of catalysts operating in high current density regimes > 300 mA cm−2. Here, 3D-printable fluoropolymer GDLs with tunable microporosity and structure are reported and probe the effects of permeance, microstructural porosity, macrostructure, and surface morphology. Under a given choice of applied electrochemical potential and electrolyte, a 100× increase in the C2H4:CO ratio due to GDL surface morphology design over a homogeneously porous equivalent and a 1.8× increase in the C2H4 partial current density due to a pyramidal macrostructure are observed. These findings offer routes to improve CO2RR GDEs as a platform for 3D catalyst design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2003855
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number7
StatePublished - Feb 18 2021


  • 3D printing
  • CO reduction
  • fluoropolymers
  • gas diffusion layers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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