3D-printed lab-in-a-syringe voltammetric cell based on a working electrode modified with a highly efficient Ca-MOF sorbent for the determination of Hg(II)

Christos Kokkinos*, Anastasios Economou, Anastasia Pournara, Manolis Manos, Ioannis Spanopoulos, Mercouri Kanatzidis, Thomais Tziotzi, Valeri Petkov, Antigoni Margariti, Panagiotis Oikonomopoulos, Giannis S. Papaefstathiou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

This work combines, for the first time, 3D-printing technology and a highly efficient metal organic framework (Ca-MOF) as an electrode modifier to produce a novel fully integrated lab-in-a-syringe device for the sensitive determination of Hg(II) by anodic stripping voltammetry. The specific Ca-MOF ([Ca(H4L)(DMA)2]·2DMA where H6L is the N,N’-bis(2,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-oxalamide and DMA is the N,N-dimethylacetamide) shows an exceptional Hg(II) sorption capability over a wide pH range and its mechanism is elucidated via spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction studies. The voltammetric lab-in-a-syringe device is fabricated through a single-step process using a dual extruder 3D printer and is composed of a vessel integrating two thermoplastic conductive electrodes (serving as the counter and pseudo-reference electrodes) and of a small detachable 3D-printed syringe loaded with a graphite paste/Ca-MOF mixture (which serves as the working electrode). After optimization of the fabrication and operational variables, a limit of detection of 0.6 μg L−1 Hg(II) was achieved, which is comparable or lower than that of existing sensors (plastic 3D-printed, gold and MOF-based electrodes). The adoption of 3D printing technology in combination with the highly efficient Ca-MOF enables the fabrication of a simple, low-cost and sensitive electrochemical sensor for Hg(II), which is suitable for on-site applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number128508
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
Volume321
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2020

Keywords

  • 3D-printed electrode
  • Electrochemical sensing
  • Mercury
  • Metal-organic frameworks
  • Sorption

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry

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