3D-printed tungsten sheet-gyroids via reduction and sintering of extruded WO3-nanopowder inks

Christoph Kenel*, Jens P.W. Sesseg, Nicholas R. Geisendorfer, Ramille N. Shah, Ralph Spolenak, David C. Dunand

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Additive manufacturing of objects with complex geometries from refractory metals remains very challenging. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of tungsten sheet-gyroids via 3D ink-extrusion of WO3 nano-powder followed by hydrogen reduction and activated sintering with NiO additions, as an alternative route to beam-based additive manufacturing of tungsten and other high melting metals and alloys. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the tungsten sheet-gyroids are measured for various wall architectures and processing conditions. The original gyroid architecture, separating two equally-sized volumes, is modified to achieve double-wall gyroids (with three separate volumes) with higher relative densities. The compressive properties of these single- and double-walled gyroids are compared to cross-ply lattice structures at 20 and 400 °C, below and above the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of tungsten. Gyroids are similarly stiff but have lower peak stresses and absorption energy as compared to cross-plies, due to a more severe multiaxial stress state. Based on architecture changes (number, spacing and width of walls), the mechanical properties of the printed gyroids can be tailored to their application requirements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101613
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Cellular materials
  • Direct ink writing
  • Gyroid
  • Tungsten

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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