4D flow imaging: Current status to future clinical applications

Michael Markl*, Susanne Schnell, Alex J. Barker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


4D flow MRI permits a comprehensive in-vivo assessment of three-directional blood flow within 3-dimensional vascular structures throughout the cardiac cycle. Given the large coverage permitted from a 4D flow acquisition, the distribution of vessel wall and flow parameters along an entire vessel of interest can thus be derived from a single measurement without being dependent on multiple predefined 2D acquisitions. In addition to qualitative 3D visualizations of complex cardiac and vascular flow patterns, quantitative flow analysis can be performed and is complemented by the ability to compute sophisticated hemodynamic parameters, such as wall shear stress or 3D pressure difference maps. These metrics can provide information previously unavailable with conventional modalities regarding the impact of cardiovascular disease or therapy on global and regional changes in hemodynamics. This review provides an introduction to the methodological aspects of 4D flow MRI to assess vascular hemodynamics and describes its potential for the assessment and understanding of altered hemodynamics in the presence of cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number481
JournalCurrent Cardiology Reports
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2014


  • 3Dflowvisualization
  • 4d flow mri
  • Aorta
  • Blood flow
  • Flowquantification
  • Heart
  • Hemodynamics
  • PC-MRI
  • Pulmonary arteries 10.1007/s11886-014-0481-8

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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