4D flow imaging—state of the art

Michael Markl, Michael D. Hope*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a versatile imaging technique for the in-vivo measurement of cardiovascular 3D hemodynamics (1). The development of 4D flow MRI has greatly benefited the understanding bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) over the last two decades and has supported a flow-mediated mechanism for why patients with BAV frequently develop aortopathy such as aortic dilation, aneurysm or dissection (2).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)468-469
Number of pages2
JournalAnnals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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