4D flow MRI for the assessment of renal transplant dysfunction: initial results

Octavia Bane, Daniela Said, Amanda Weiss, Daniel Stocker, Paul Kennedy, Stefanie J. Hectors, Rafael Khaim, Fadi Salem, Veronica Delaney, Madhav C. Menon, Michael Markl, Sara Lewis, Bachir Taouli*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: (1) Determine inter-observer reproducibility and test-retest repeatability of 4D flow parameters in renal allograft vessels; (2) determine if 4D flow measurements in the renal artery (RA) and renal vein (RV) can distinguish between functional and dysfunctional allografts; (3) correlate haemodynamic parameters with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), perfusion measured with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and histopathology. Methods: Twenty-five prospectively recruited renal transplant patients (stable function/chronic renal allograft dysfunction, 12/13) underwent 4D flow MRI at 1.5 T. 4D flow coronal oblique acquisitions were performed in the transplant renal artery (RA) (velocity encoding parameter, VENC = 120 cm/s) and renal vein (RV) (VENC = 45 cm/s). Test-retest repeatability (n = 3) and inter-observer reproducibility (n = 10) were assessed by Cohen’s kappa, coefficient of variation (CoV) and Bland-Altman statistics. Haemodynamic parameters were compared between patients and correlated to the estimated glomerular filtration rate, DCE-MRI parameters (n = 10) and histopathology from allograft biopsies (n = 15). Results: For inter-observer reproducibility, kappa was > 0.99 and 0.62 and CoV of flow was 12.6% and 7.8% for RA and RV, respectively. For test-retest repeatability, kappa was > 0.99 and 0.5 and CoV of flow was 27.3% and 59.4%, for RA and RV, respectively. RA (p = 0.039) and RV (p = 0.019) flow were both significantly reduced in dysfunctional allografts. Both identified chronic allograft dysfunction with good diagnostic performance (RA: AUC = 0.76, p = 0.036; RV: AUC = 0.8, p = 0.018). RA flow correlated negatively with histopathologic interstitial fibrosis score ci (ρ = − 0.6, p = 0.03). Conclusions: 4D flow parameters had better repeatability in the RA than in the RV. RA and RV flow can identify chronic renal allograft dysfunction, with RA flow correlating with histopathologic interstitial fibrosis score. Key Points: • Inter-observer reproducibility of 4D flow measurements was acceptable in both the transplant renal artery and vein, but test-retest repeatability was better in the renal artery than in the renal vein. • Blood flow measurements obtained with 4D flow MRI in the renal artery and renal vein are significantly reduced in dysfunctional renal transplants. • Renal transplant artery flow correlated negatively with histopathologic interstitial fibrosis score.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEuropean Radiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Renal artery
  • Renal blood flow
  • Renal transplantation
  • Renal veins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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    Bane, O., Said, D., Weiss, A., Stocker, D., Kennedy, P., Hectors, S. J., Khaim, R., Salem, F., Delaney, V., Menon, M. C., Markl, M., Lewis, S., & Taouli, B. (Accepted/In press). 4D flow MRI for the assessment of renal transplant dysfunction: initial results. European Radiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07208-7