4D Flow with MRI

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54 Scopus citations


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with cardiac and vascular diseases. Since its introduction in the late 1980s, quantitative flow imaging with MRI has become a routine part of standard-of-care cardiothoracic and vascular MRI for the assessment of pathological changes in blood flow in patients with cardiovascular disease. More recently, time-resolved flow imaging with velocity encoding along all three flow directions and three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage (4D flow MRI) has been developed and applied to enable comprehensive 3D visualization and quantification of hemodynamics throughout the human circulatory system. This article provides an overview of the use of 4D flow applications in different cardiac and vascular regions in the human circulatory system, with a focus on using 4D flow MRI in cardiothoracic and cerebrovascular diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)103-126
Number of pages24
JournalAnnual Review of Biomedical Engineering
StatePublished - Jun 4 2020


  • 4D flow
  • blood flow
  • hemodynamics
  • magnetic resonance imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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