4D-MR flow analysis in patients after repair for tetralogy of Fallot

J. Geiger*, M. Markl, B. Jung, J. Grohmann, B. Stiller, M. Langer, R. Arnold

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


Objectives Comprehensive analysis of haemodynamics by 3D flow visualisation and retrospective flow quantification in patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods Time-resolved flow-sensitive 4D MRI (spatial resolution ~ 2.5 mm, temporal resolution = 38.4 ms) was acquired in ten patients after repair of TOF and in four healthy controls. Data analysis included the evaluation of haemodynamics in the aorta, the pulmonary trunk (TP) and left (lPA) and right (rPA) pulmonary arteries by 3D blood flow visualisation using particle traces, and quantitative measurements of flow velocity. Results 3D visualisation of whole heart haemodynamics provided a comprehensive overview on flow pattern changes in TOF patients, mainly alterations in flow velocity, retrograde flow and pathological vortices. There was consistently higher blood flow in the rPA of the patients (rPA/lPA flow ratio: 2.6±2.5 vs. 1.1±0.1 in controls). Systolic peak velocity in the TP was higher in patients (1.9 m/s±0.7 m/s) than controls (0.9 m/s±0.1 m/s). Conclusions 4D flow-sensitive MRI permits the comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics in patients after repair of TOF. Altered flow patterns for different surgical techniques in the small patient cohort may indicate its value for patient monitoring and potentially identifying optimal surgical strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1651-1657
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2011


  • 4D MRI
  • Monitoring
  • Pulmonary haemodynamics
  • Tetralogy of fallot
  • Vortices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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