4Pi spectral self-interference microscopy

Brynmor J. Davis*, Mehmet Dogan, Bennett B. Goldberg, William C. Karl, M. Selim Ünlü, Anna K. Swan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Spectral self-interference microscopy (SSM) relies on the balanced collection of light traveling two different paths from the sample to the detector, one direct and the other indirect from a reflecting substrate. The resulting spectral interference effects allow nanometer-scale axial localization of isolated emitters. To produce spectral fringes the difference between the two optical paths must be significant. Consequently, to ensure that both contributions are in focus, a low-numerical-aperture objective lens must be used, giving poor lateral resolution. Here this limitation is overcome using a 4Pi apparatus to produce the requisite two paths to the detector. The resulting instrument generalizes both SSM and 4Pi microscopy and allows a quantification of SSM resolution (rather than localization precision). Specifically, SSM is shown to be subject to the same resolution constraints as 4Pi microscopy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3762-3771
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition


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