Context: Uterine leiomyoma, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumors of the female reproductive tract. A newly discovered epigenetic modification, 5-hydroxymethylation (5-hmC), and its regulators, the TET (Ten Eleven Translocation) enzymes, were implicated in the pathology of malignant tumors; however, their roles in benign tumors, including uterine fibroids, remain unknown.
Objective: To determine the role of 5-hmC and TET proteins in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma using human uterine leiomyoma and normal matched myometrial tissues and primary cells.
Design: 5-hmC levels were determined by ELISA and immunofluorescent staining in matched myometrial and leiomyoma tissues. TET expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. TET1 or TET3 were silenced or inhibited by small interferingRNAor 2-hydroxyglutarate to study their effects on 5-hmC content and cell proliferation.
Results: We demonstrated significantly higher 5-hmC levels in the genomic DNA of leiomyoma tissue compared to normal myometrial tissue. The increase in 5-hmC levels was associated with the up-regulation of TET1 or TET3 mRNA and protein expression in leiomyoma tissue. TET1 or TET3 knockdown significantly reduced 5-hmC levels in leiomyoma cells and decreased cell proliferation. Treatment with 2-hydroxyglutarate, a competitive TET enzyme inhibitor, significantly decreased both 5-hmC content and cell proliferation of leiomyoma cells.
Conclusion: An epigenetic imbalance in the 5-hmC content of leiomyoma tissue, caused by upregulation of the TET1 and TET3 enzymes, might lead to discovery of new therapeutic targets in leiomyoma.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical