6.19 Biomaterials for central nervous system regeneration

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions are caused by disease or trauma; they are diverse, frequently severe, and nondiscriminatory in affecting the world?s population. Traumatic injuries such as brain injury and spinal cord injury severely and immediately affect a person?s physical and/or cognitive abilities. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer?s disease, Parkinson?s disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig?s disease) degenerate CNS neurons, again resulting in deficits in movement and cognition. Even when potential treatments are discovered, the difficulties involved in accessing the CNS may make surgical intervention to implement such treatment more debilitating, and the presence of the blood-brain barrier inhibits therapeutic molecules from passing into the CNS. Regeneration is difficult in the CNS due to the presence of inhibitory molecules and cellular heterogeneity. Additionally, diverse tissue response cascades following disease/injury in the CNS add more challenges to regeneration such as increased inflammation, invading cells, and glial scarring. Biomaterials, especially nanotechnology derived, are utilized as a tool in combating tissue response, drug delivery issues, and changes in the environmental milieu. Examples include nanofibers, liposomes, nerve channels, scaffolds, and nanoparticles. These materials can be custom-designed to provide a facilitory environment for regeneration and/or a blocker of inhibitory environmental cues and tissue processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationComprehensive Biomaterials II
PublisherElsevier
Pages321-333
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9780081006924
ISBN (Print)9780081006917
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig?s disease)
  • Astrocyte
  • Astrogliosis
  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Differentiation
  • Embryonic stem cells
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Growth factor
  • Inflammation
  • Neural progenitor cells
  • Neuron
  • Neurotrophic factor
  • Oligodendrocyte
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Regeneration
  • Scaffolds
  • Spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

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