A 3D EHL simulation of CMP: Theoretical framework of modeling

Xiaoqing Jin*, Leon M. Keer, Qian Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The extensive application of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) in the semiconductor industry requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved. This paper integrates a group of mechanical models to give a framework for CMP modeling: a mixed three-dimensional (3D) soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model with asperity contact considered. The soft-pad mechanics, asperity-contact analysis, and slurry film description are three major components of this framework. Based on the results of a thin-layer contact analysis, the Winkler foundation model is selected to evaluate the pad deformation in bulk. By applying the macro-micro approach, the macroscopic view of the average fluid film thickness (average clearance) is related to microasperity contact. When CMP is implemented in a mixed lubrication regime, the soft polishing pad usually undergoes a displacement of the same scale as the slurry film, which may change the lubrication boundary considerably. Considering this effect, a modified Reynolds equation is derived, and a stronger coupling is found in the global force and moment balances. Finally, an effective iterative scheme is proposed and modeling results examined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)G7-G15
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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