A 3D framework of implicit attitude change

Benedek Kurdi*, Tessa E.S. Charlesworth

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


According to early theories, implicit (automatic) social attitudes are difficult if not impossible to change. Although this view has recently been challenged by research relying on experimental, developmental, and cultural approaches, relevant work remains siloed across research communities. As such, the time is ripe to systematize and integrate disparate (and seemingly contradictory) findings and to identify gaps in existing knowledge. To this end, we introduce a 3D framework classifying research on implicit attitude change by levels of analysis (individual vs. collective), sources of change (experimental, ontogenetic, and cultural), and timescales (short term vs. long term). This 3D framework highlights where evidence for implicit attitude change is more versus less well established and pinpoints directions for future research, including at the intersection of fields.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)745-758
Number of pages14
JournalTrends in Cognitive Sciences
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • attitude change
  • developmental change
  • implicit attitudes
  • levels of analysis
  • multimethod designs
  • social change

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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