With an ever-increasing demand for energy efficiency, processors with instant-on and zero leakage features are highly appreciated in energy harvesting as well as 'normally off' applications. Recently, zero-standby power and fast switching nonvolatile processors (NVPs) have been proposed based on emerging nonvolatile memories (NVMs), such as ferroelectric RAM or spin-transfer-torque magnetic RAM. However, previous NVPs store all data to NVM upon every power interruption, resulting in high-energy consumption and degraded NVM endurance. This paper presents a 65-nm fully CMOS-logic-compatible ReRAM-based NVP supporting time-space domain adaption. It incorporates adaptive nonvolatile controller, nonvolatile flip-flops, and nonvolatile static random access memory (nvSRAM) with self-write termination. Data redundancy in both time and space domain is fully exploited to reduce store/restore time/energy and boost clock frequency. The NVP operates at >100 MHz and achieves 20 ns/0.45 nJ restore time/energy, realizing >6 × and >6000 × higher speed and energy efficiency of restore and >4 × faster operating frequency compared with that of state of the art.
- Nonvolatile processor (NVP)
- nonvolatile SRAM (nvSRAM)
- nonvolatile flip-flops (nvFF)
- self-write termination (SWT)
- time-space domain adaption
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering