OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this research was to characterize behavioral and cognitive profiles of clinically and immunologically stable antiretroviral- experienced HIV-infected children. METHODS. Two hundred seventy-four previously treated HIV-infected children aged 2 to 17 years were assessed for behavioral, developmental, and cognitive functioning. Correlations between neuropsychological measures, age, and CD4 lymphocyte count were investigated. RESULTS. The most common behavioral problems, as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, were psychosomatic (28%), learning (25%), hyperactivity (20%), impulsive-hyperactive (19%), conduct (16%), and anxiety (8%) problems. Mean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III scores were less than established population norms; the mean verbal IQ was 85, the mean performance IQ was 90, and the mean full-scale score was 86. Hyperactivity was more frequent in children with a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III performance IQ of <90. Anxiety problems were more likely in children ≥9 years of age. Children with CD4 counts of <660 cells per mm3 were more likely to be identified as having a conduct disorder. No association was noted between behavioral problems and neuroimaging. CONCLUSIONS. Clinically and immunologically stable HIV-infected children had more frequent behavioral problems and lower developmental and cognitive scores than established childhood norms.
- Antiretroviral agents
- Attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity
- Behavioral symptoms
- Neuropsychological tests
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health