A bioluminescent and fluorescent orthotopic syngeneic murine model of androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer

Jonathan F. Anker, Hanlin Mok, Anum F. Naseem, Praveen Thumbikat*, Sarki A. Abdulkadir

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Orthotopic tumor modeling is a valuable tool for pre-clinical prostate cancer research, as it has multiple advantages over both subcutaneous and transgenic genetically engineered mouse models. Unlike subcutaneous tumors, orthotopic tumors contain more clinically accurate vasculature, tumor microenvironment, and responses to multiple therapies. In contrast to genetically engineered mouse models, orthotopic models can be performed with lower cost and in less time, involve the use of highly complex and heterogeneous mouse or human cancer cell lines, rather that single genetic alterations, and these cell lines can be genetically modified, such as to express imaging agents. Here, we present a protocol to surgically injecting a luciferase- and mCherry-expressing murine prostate cancer cell line into the anterior prostate lobe of mice. These mice developed orthotopic tumors that were non-invasively monitored in vivo and further analyzed for tumor volume, weight, mouse survival, and immune infiltration. Further, orthotopic tumor-bearing mice were surgically castrated, leading to immediate tumor regression and subsequent recurrence, representing castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although technical skill is required to carry out this procedure, this syngeneic orthotopic model of both androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer is of great use to all investigators in the field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere57301
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number133
StatePublished - Mar 6 2018


  • Androgen-dependent prostate cancer
  • Cancer Research
  • Castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • In vivo imaging
  • Intra-prostatic injection
  • Issue 133
  • Medicine
  • Orthotopic prostate tumor
  • Prostate cancer
  • Surgery
  • Surgical castration
  • Syngeneic mouse model
  • Tumor microenvironment
  • Urology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)


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