A common allele in RPGRIP1L is a modifier of retinal degeneration in ciliopathies

Hemant Khanna, Erica Ellen Davis, Carlos A. Murga-Zamalloa, Alejandro Estrada-Cuzcano, Irma Lopez, Anneke I. Den Hollander, Marijke N. Zonneveld, Mohammad I. Othman, Naushin Waseem, Christina F. Chakarova, Cecilia Maubaret, Anna Diaz-Font, Ian MacDonald, Donna M. Muzny, David A. Wheeler, Margaret Morgan, Lora R. Lewis, Clare V. Logan, Perciliz L. Tan, Michael A. BeerChris F. Inglehearn, Richard A. Lewis, Samuel G. Jacobson, Carsten Bergmann, Philip L. Beales, Tania Attié-Bitach, Colin A. Johnson, Edgar A. Otto, Shomi S. Bhattacharya, Friedhelm Hildebrandt, Richard A. Gibbs, Robert K. Koenekoop, Anand Swaroop*, Elias Nicholas Katsanis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

238 Scopus citations


Despite rapid advances in the identification of genes involved in disease, the predictive power of the genotype remains limited, in part owing to poorly understood effects of second-site modifiers. Here we demonstrate that a polymorphic coding variant of RPGRIP1L (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like), a ciliary gene mutated in Meckel-Gruber (MKS) and Joubert (JBTS) syndromes, is associated with the development of retinal degeneration in individuals with ciliopathies caused by mutations in other genes. As part of our resequencing efforts of the ciliary proteome, we identified several putative loss-of-function RPGRIP1L mutations, including one common variant, A229T. Multiple genetic lines of evidence showed this allele to be associated with photoreceptor loss in ciliopathies. Moreover, we show that RPGRIP1L interacts biochemically with RPGR, loss of which causes retinal degeneration, and that the Thr229-encoded protein significantly compromises this interaction. Our data represent an example of modification of a discrete phenotype of syndromic disease and highlight the importance of a multifaceted approach for the discovery of modifier alleles of intermediate frequency and effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)739-745
Number of pages7
JournalNature Genetics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


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