A Comparative Analysis of Equations to Estimate Patient Energy Requirements Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass for Correction of Congenital Heart Disease

Natalie Roebuck*, Chun Po Steve Fan, Alejandro Floh, Zena Leah Harris, Mjaye L. Mazwi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: No consensus exists on the optimal method to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in critically ill children following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study assesses the accuracy of REE estimation equations in children with congenital heart disease following CPB and tests the feasibility of using allometric scaling as an alternative energy prediction equation. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a pediatric cohort following CPB (n = 107; median age 5.2 months, median weight 5.65 kg) who underwent serial measures (median 5 measurements) of REE using indirect calorimetry for 72 hours following CPB. We estimated REE using common estimation methods (Dietary Reference Intake, Harris Benedict, Schofield, World Health Organization [WHO]) as well as novel allometric equations. We compared estimated with measured REE to determine accuracy of each equation using overall discrepancy, calculated as a time-weighted average of the absolute deviation. Results: All equations incorrectly estimated REE at all time points following CPB, with overestimation error predominating. WHO had the lowest discrepancy at 10.7 ± 8.4 kcal/kg/d. The allometric equation was inferior, with an overall discrepancy of 16.9 ± 10.4. There is a strong nonlinear relationship between body surface area and measured REE in this cohort, which is a key source of estimation error using linear equations. Conclusion: In a cohort of pediatric patients with congenital heart disease following CPB, no currently utilized clinical estimation equation reliably estimated REE. Allometric scaling proved inferior in estimating REE in children following CPB. Indirect calorimetry remains the ideal method of determining REE after CPB until nonlinear methods can be derived due to overestimation using linear equations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)444-453
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020



  • calorimetry
  • cardiopulmonary bypass
  • congenital heart disease
  • energy
  • pediatric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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