Background: In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) concluded the health benefits of circumcision during the neonatal period outweigh the risks. This study describes recent trends in male circumcision in freestanding children's hospitals in the United States. Methods: Using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS), male patients < 18 years of age who were circumcised without any additional procedures between the years 2010 and 2017 were identified. Data included age at procedure (neonate: 0–30 days, infant: 31–365 days, early childhood: ≥ 1 to < 5 years, and older child: ≥ 5 to < 18 years), cost, and specialty performing the circumcision. Results: Of the 171,680 circumcisions performed, 85,270 (50%) were during neonatal period, 29,060 (17%) during infancy, 30,276 (18%) early childhood, and 26,355 (16%) thereafter. Circumcision in neonates increased from 39% to 58% (p < 0.001), and the proportion performed during infancy decreased over time. System level cost for ambulatory circumcision averaged $32 million USD annually, and median cost per ambulatory circumcision was $2892 USD. Obstetricians and Pediatricians are performing proportionally more circumcisions. Conclusion: Since 2012, proportionally more neonates are undergoing circumcision in US children's hospitals. Perinatal specialties are performing an increasing proportion of circumcisions. Circumcision during the birth hospitalization in the neonatal period is more resource-effective than postponing until later in infancy. Type of study: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. Level of evidence: Level IV.
- Age at operation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health