A Double-Blind Randomized Crossover Study of Oral Thalidomide Versus Placebo for Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Treated With Intermittent Androgen Ablation

William D. Figg*, Maha H. Hussain, James L. Gulley, Philip M. Arlen, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching, Daniel P. Petrylak, Celestia S. Higano, Seth M. Steinberg, Gurkamal S. Chatta, Howard Parnes, John J. Wright, Oliver Sartor, William L. Dahut

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: We determined whether thalidomide can prolong progression-free survival in men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer treated with limited androgen deprivation therapy. Materials and Methods: A total of 159 patients were enrolled in a double-blind randomized trial to determine if thalidomide can improve the efficacy of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in hormone responsive patients with an increasing prostate specific antigen after primary definitive therapy for prostate cancer. Patients were randomized to 6 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist followed by 200 mg per day oral thalidomide or placebo (oral phase A). At the time of prostate specific antigen progression gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was restarted for 6 additional months. Patients were then crossed over to the opposite drug and were treated until prostate specific antigen progression (oral phase B). Testosterone and dihydroxytestosterone were likewise monitored throughout the study. Results: During oral phase A the median time to prostate specific antigen progression was 15 months for the thalidomide group compared to 9.6 months on placebo (p = 0.21). The median time to prostate specific antigen progression during oral phase B for the thalidomide group was 17.1 vs 6.6 months on placebo (p = 0.0002). No differences in time to serum testosterone normalization between the thalidomide and placebo arms were documented during oral phase A and oral phase B. Thalidomide was tolerable although dose reductions occurred in 47% (58 of 124) of patients. Conclusions: Despite thalidomide having no effect on testosterone normalization, there was a clear effect on prostate specific antigen progression during oral phase B. This is the first study to our knowledge to demonstrate the effects of thalidomide using intermittent hormonal therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1104-1113
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Urology
Volume181
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2009

Keywords

  • angiogenesis inhibitors
  • disease-free survival
  • hormones
  • prostatic neoplasms
  • thalidomide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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    Figg, W. D., Hussain, M. H., Gulley, J. L., Arlen, P. M., Aragon-Ching, J. B., Petrylak, D. P., Higano, C. S., Steinberg, S. M., Chatta, G. S., Parnes, H., Wright, J. J., Sartor, O., & Dahut, W. L. (2009). A Double-Blind Randomized Crossover Study of Oral Thalidomide Versus Placebo for Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Treated With Intermittent Androgen Ablation. Journal of Urology, 181(3), 1104-1113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2008.11.026