A framework to link localized cooling and properties of directed energy deposition (DED)-processed Ti-6Al-4V

Sarah J. Wolff*, Stephen Lin, Eric J. Faierson, Wing Kam Liu, Gregory J. Wagner, Jian Cao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

125 Scopus citations


Additive manufacturing (AM) of titanium alloys is a rapidly growing field due to an increase in design flexibility of parts. However, AM parts are highly anisotropic in material microstructure and mechanical behavior due to the change of the local processing conditions in the build-up process. This study follows a link chain model to investigate the relationships between process parameters, cooling rate, porosity and mechanical behavior. The aim of this work is to present a framework that is inspired by the three-link chain model. The framework combines theoretical, computational and experimental approaches. We demonstrate this by using an in-house thermal simulator to link predicted cooling rates with micrographs describing experimental shape descriptors to develop a relationship between solidification cooling rate and porosity geometry. Finally, representative volume elements from predicted porosity maps allow for a prediction of mechanical properties at localized areas. The capability of being able to predict mechanical behavior of titanium alloys is demonstrated for the directed energy deposition process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-117
Number of pages12
JournalActa Materialia
StatePublished - Jun 15 2017


  • Anisotropy
  • Cooling rate
  • Directed energy deposition (DED)
  • Porosity
  • Titanium alloys

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys


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