The general mechanism of martensitic nucleation by faulting from groups of existing dislocations, as proposed in Part I, is applied to the fcc → bcc, bcc → fcc, bcc → hcp, and related transformations, including mechanical twinning. Where thermodynamic data are available, the conditions at the observed M s temperatures are consistent with nucleation from a defect composed of four or five properly spaced lattice dislocations. Examples of nucleation by faulting on the planes predicted are found in published electron microscopy. The faults are observed at the types of sites where the required dislocation groups are expected. These include grain boundaries, incoherent twin boundaries, and inclusion particle interfaces. Having defined the function of a nucleation site, mechanisms of strain induced nucleation and autocatalysis are then considered.
ASJC Scopus subject areas