A high-rate germanium-particle slurry cast Li-ion anode with high Coulombic efficiency and long cycle life

Kyle C. Klavetter, Sean M. Wood, Yong Mao Lin, Jonathan L. Snider, Nicholas C. Davy, Aaron Michael Chockla, Dwight K. Romanovicz, Brian A. Korgel, Joo Woon Lee, Adam Heller, C. Buddie Mullins*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


We report stable, high capacity cycling performance over 2500 deep cycles at variable C-rates (1C, 5C and 10C) for slurry-cast Li-ion battery anodes made using commercially-available germanium nanopowder. The determining factor in cycling performance was the use of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) rather than ethylene carbonate (EC) as a co-solvent in the electrolyte. Cycling tests for the FEC-based electrode showed stable performance close to 700 mAh g -1 through 500 cycles at 10C with near 100% Coulombic efficiency. These results show that a Ge-based slurry-cast electrode using active material structured only as a simple particle can be used to create an electrode system which is a candidate for optimization and scale-up. These cycling improvements obtained using the FEC-based electrolyte complements recent progress in Ge-based electrode research which has focused on improving performance through tailored structural and chemical modifications to the active material structure. The effect of the electrolyte on Li-ion transport, electrode stability toward oxidation, and electrode and SEI structural stability was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential capacity profiles, SEM and cross-sectional TEM imaging where we characterize the evolution of the electrode structure cycled with the FEC-based electrolyte considering the type and extent of SEI growth, particle agglomeration and fracturing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-136
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Power Sources
StatePublished - 2013


  • FEC
  • Fluoroethylene carbonate FEC
  • Germanium
  • High rate
  • Li-ion anode
  • Stability toward oxidation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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