A Measurement Model for Dignity, Face, and Honor Cultural Norms

Jingjing Yao*, Jimena Ramirez-Marin, Jeanne Brett, Soroush Aslani, Zhaleh Semnani-Azad

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


In this work we develop and validate a model measuring norms that distinguish three types of culture: dignity, face, and honor (Leung & Cohen, 2011). Our motivation is to produce empirical evidence for this new cultural framework and use the framework to explain cultural differences in interdependent social interactions such as negotiation. In two studies, we establish the content validity, construct validity, predictive validity, and measurement invariance of this measurement model. In Study 1, we present the model's three-factor structure and situate the constructs of dignity, face, and honor in a nomological network of cultural constructs. In Study 2, which uses a sample of participants from 26 cultures, we show that the measurement model discriminates among people from the three cultural regions corresponding to the dignity, face, and honor framework. In particular, we report differences between face and honor cultures, which are not distinguished in other cultural frameworks (e.g., Hofstede, 1980). We also show that the measurement model accounts for cultural differences in norms for use of negotiation strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)713-738
Number of pages26
JournalManagement and Organization Review
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017


  • dignity
  • face
  • honor
  • negotiation strategy
  • norms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Strategy and Management


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