Endocytosis overshoot, which retrieves more membrane than vesicles just being exocytosed, occurs at nerve terminals and non-neuronal secretory cells. The mechanism that retrieves the overshoot membrane pool and the role of this pool remain largely unknown. We addressed this issue at the rat calyx of Held nerve terminal with capacitance measurements. We found that every calyx contained an overshoot pool~1.8 times the readily releasable pool. Retrieval of this pool required large calcium influx, and was inhibited by blockers of calcium/calmodulin-activated calcineurin and dynamin, suggesting the involvement of calcineurin and dynamin in endocytosis overshoot. Depletion of the overshoot pool slowed down compensatory endocytosis, whereas recovery of the overshoot pool via exocytosis that deposited stranded vesicles to the plasma membrane led to recovery of compensatory endocytosis, suggesting that the overshoot pool enhances endocytosis efficiency. These results suggest that the overshoot pool exists at every nerve terminal, is of limited size arising from vesicles stranded at the plasma membrane, is retrieved via calcium/calmodulin/calcineurin and dynamin signaling pathway, and can enhance endocytosis efficiency. Potential mechanisms for how the endocytosis overshoot pool enhances endocytosis efficiency are discussed.
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