This paper presents a method for determining activation time delays in unipolar cardiac mapping data to resolutions considerably smaller than the sample interval. The method involves taking two filtered, differentiated electrograms and computing the Hilbert transform of their cross correlation, which exhibits a negative-to-positive zero crossing at the delay time between the signals. Simultaneous endocardial/epicardial recordings of sinus rhythm were made in the swine right atrium using identical, precisely superpositioned electrode arrays. Data were amplified, lowpass filtered, and digitized at 1000 Hz. A window of data was chosen around each electrogram in an endocardial/epicardial electrogram pair. The windowed electrograms were differentiated and highpass filtered, and the Hilbert transform of the cross correlation between the electrograms was computed. The activation time delay was taken to be the first negative-to-positive zero crossing. Average activation time delays (±SD) were computed for 4-s sinus rhythm recordings from each endocardial/epicardial electrode pair. For a representative site, the average transmural activation time delay was 0.71 ± 0.06 ms (n = 10 electrograms). Time delays estimated using the Hilbert transform method were compared with time delays estimated using the maximum negative slope criterion. The Hilbert transform results exhibited much smaller standard deviations, indicating that the Hilbert transform method may produce more accurate time delay estimates than the maximum negative slope method.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering