A mixed methods approach identifying facilitators and barriers to guide adaptations to InterCARE strategies: an integrated HIV and hypertension care model in Botswana

Pooja Gala*, Ponego Ponatshego, Laura M. Bogart, Nabila Youssouf, Mareko Ramotsababa, Amelia E. Van Pelt, Thato Moshomo, Evelyn Dintwa, Khumo Seipone, Maliha Ilias, Veronica Tonwe, Tendani Gaolathe, Lisa R. Hirschhorn, Mosepele Mosepele

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Botswana serves as a model of success for HIV with 95% of people living with HIV (PLWH) virally suppressed. Yet, only 19% of PLWH and hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To address this gap, InterCARE, a care model that integrates HIV and hypertension care through a) provider training; b) adapted electronic health record; and c) treatment partners (peer support), was designed. This study presents results from our baseline assessment of the determinants and factors used to guide adaptations to InterCARE implementation strategies prior to a hybrid type 2 effectiveness-implementation study. Methods: This study employed a convergent mixed methods design across two clinics (one rural, one urban) to collect quantitative and qualitative data through facility assessments, 100 stakeholder surveys (20 each PLWH and hypertension, existing HIV treatment partners, clinical healthcare providers (HCPs), and 40 community leaders) and ten stakeholder key informative interviews (KIIs). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and deductive qualitative analysis organized by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and compared to identify areas of convergence and divergence. Results: Although 90.3% of 290 PLWH and hypertension at the clinics were taking antihypertensive medications, 52.8% had uncontrolled blood pressure. Results from facility assessments, surveys, and KIIs identified key determinants in the CFIR innovation and inner setting domains. Most stakeholders (> 85%) agreed that InterCARE was adaptable, compatible and would be successful at improving blood pressure control in PLWH and hypertension. HCPs agreed that there were insufficient resources (40%), consistent with facility assessments and KIIs which identified limited staffing, inconsistent electricity, and a lack of supplies as key barriers. Adaptations to InterCARE included a task-sharing strategy and expanded treatment partner training and support. Conclusions: Integrating hypertension services into HIV clinics was perceived as more advantageous for PLWH than the current model of hypertension care delivered outside of HIV clinics. Identified barriers were used to adapt InterCARE implementation strategies for more effective intervention delivery. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05414526. Registered 18 May 2022 – Retrospectively registered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number67
JournalImplementation Science Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024


  • Botswana
  • HIV
  • Hypertension
  • Implementation science
  • Integrated care
  • Low- and middle- income countries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Health Informatics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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