Few studies have been designed to assess the pathways by which risk factors are associated with symptoms of psychopathology across multiple domains, including contextual factors, parental depression, parenting, and child characteristics. The present study examines a cross-sectional model of risk factors for symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in a diverse community sample of 796 four-year-old children. In the best-fitting model: (a) SES had indirect effects on contextual factors of stress and conflict, parental depression, and parenting factors including hostility, support, and scaffolding; (b) stress and conflict had both direct effects on ODD symptoms, and indirect effects via parental depression and parenting; (c) parenting had direct effects on ODD symptoms and indirect effects via child effortful control (EC), negative affect (NA) and sensory regulation (SR); (c) NA, EC, and SR had direct effects on symptom frequency, and attachment had indirect effects via EC, and SR. These results highlight the importance of using a multi-domain model to examine risk factors for symptoms of ODD, and also provide information about areas to target in treatment.
- Multi-domain model
- Oppositional defiant disorder
- Risk factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health