A multisite, longitudinal study of risk factors for incarceration and impact on mental health and substance use among young transgender women in the USA

Jaclyn M.White Hughto*, Sari L. Reisner, Trace S. Kershaw, Fredrick L. Altice, Katie B. Biello, Matthew J. Mimiaga, Robert Garofalo, Lisa M. Kuhns, John E. Pachankis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Transgender women are disproportionately incarcerated in the US relative to the general population. A dearth of research has explored the factors that predict incarceration among transgender women or the longitudinal impact of incarceration on the health of this population. Methods Between 2012 and 2015, 221 transgender women ages 16-29 from Boston, MA and Chicago, IL were prospectively assessed at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 months. Mixed effects models were used to identify risk factors for incarceration and examine whether incarceration predicts somatic, anxiety and depressive symptoms, illicit drug use, and binge drinking over time, controlling for baseline psychiatric and substance use disorders. Results Overall, 38% experienced incarceration, before (33%) and during (18%) the study period. Significant independent predictors of recent incarceration included sex work, recent homelessness, school dropout and number of times incarcerated prior to enrollment while recent incarceration significantly predicted somatic symptoms and illicit drug use over time. Conclusions Incarceration burden is high in young transgender women. Both structural and individual risk factors predict incarceration and poor health, suggesting the need for multilevel interventions to prevent incarceration and support young transgender women during incarceration and upon release.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-109
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Public Health (United Kingdom)
Volume41
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

Fingerprint

Transgender Persons
Longitudinal Studies
Mental Health
Street Drugs
Student Dropouts
Sex Work
Binge Drinking
Homeless Persons
Health
Population
Substance-Related Disorders
Psychiatry
Anxiety
Depression
Research

Keywords

  • Incarceration
  • Mental health
  • Substance use
  • Transgender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Hughto, Jaclyn M.White ; Reisner, Sari L. ; Kershaw, Trace S. ; Altice, Fredrick L. ; Biello, Katie B. ; Mimiaga, Matthew J. ; Garofalo, Robert ; Kuhns, Lisa M. ; Pachankis, John E. / A multisite, longitudinal study of risk factors for incarceration and impact on mental health and substance use among young transgender women in the USA. In: Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom). 2019 ; Vol. 41, No. 1. pp. 100-109.
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abstract = "Background Transgender women are disproportionately incarcerated in the US relative to the general population. A dearth of research has explored the factors that predict incarceration among transgender women or the longitudinal impact of incarceration on the health of this population. Methods Between 2012 and 2015, 221 transgender women ages 16-29 from Boston, MA and Chicago, IL were prospectively assessed at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 months. Mixed effects models were used to identify risk factors for incarceration and examine whether incarceration predicts somatic, anxiety and depressive symptoms, illicit drug use, and binge drinking over time, controlling for baseline psychiatric and substance use disorders. Results Overall, 38{\%} experienced incarceration, before (33{\%}) and during (18{\%}) the study period. Significant independent predictors of recent incarceration included sex work, recent homelessness, school dropout and number of times incarcerated prior to enrollment while recent incarceration significantly predicted somatic symptoms and illicit drug use over time. Conclusions Incarceration burden is high in young transgender women. Both structural and individual risk factors predict incarceration and poor health, suggesting the need for multilevel interventions to prevent incarceration and support young transgender women during incarceration and upon release.",
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A multisite, longitudinal study of risk factors for incarceration and impact on mental health and substance use among young transgender women in the USA. / Hughto, Jaclyn M.White; Reisner, Sari L.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Altice, Fredrick L.; Biello, Katie B.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Pachankis, John E.

In: Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom), Vol. 41, No. 1, 01.03.2019, p. 100-109.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Altice, Fredrick L.

AU - Biello, Katie B.

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AU - Pachankis, John E.

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N2 - Background Transgender women are disproportionately incarcerated in the US relative to the general population. A dearth of research has explored the factors that predict incarceration among transgender women or the longitudinal impact of incarceration on the health of this population. Methods Between 2012 and 2015, 221 transgender women ages 16-29 from Boston, MA and Chicago, IL were prospectively assessed at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 months. Mixed effects models were used to identify risk factors for incarceration and examine whether incarceration predicts somatic, anxiety and depressive symptoms, illicit drug use, and binge drinking over time, controlling for baseline psychiatric and substance use disorders. Results Overall, 38% experienced incarceration, before (33%) and during (18%) the study period. Significant independent predictors of recent incarceration included sex work, recent homelessness, school dropout and number of times incarcerated prior to enrollment while recent incarceration significantly predicted somatic symptoms and illicit drug use over time. Conclusions Incarceration burden is high in young transgender women. Both structural and individual risk factors predict incarceration and poor health, suggesting the need for multilevel interventions to prevent incarceration and support young transgender women during incarceration and upon release.

AB - Background Transgender women are disproportionately incarcerated in the US relative to the general population. A dearth of research has explored the factors that predict incarceration among transgender women or the longitudinal impact of incarceration on the health of this population. Methods Between 2012 and 2015, 221 transgender women ages 16-29 from Boston, MA and Chicago, IL were prospectively assessed at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 months. Mixed effects models were used to identify risk factors for incarceration and examine whether incarceration predicts somatic, anxiety and depressive symptoms, illicit drug use, and binge drinking over time, controlling for baseline psychiatric and substance use disorders. Results Overall, 38% experienced incarceration, before (33%) and during (18%) the study period. Significant independent predictors of recent incarceration included sex work, recent homelessness, school dropout and number of times incarcerated prior to enrollment while recent incarceration significantly predicted somatic symptoms and illicit drug use over time. Conclusions Incarceration burden is high in young transgender women. Both structural and individual risk factors predict incarceration and poor health, suggesting the need for multilevel interventions to prevent incarceration and support young transgender women during incarceration and upon release.

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