Calmodulin (CaM) is a major effector for the intracellular actions of Ca2+ in nearly all cell types. We identified a CaM-binding protein, designated regulator of calmodulin signaling (RCS). G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA) led to phosphorylation of RCS at Ser55 and increased its binding to CaM. Phospho-RCS acted as a competitive inhibitor of CaM-dependent enzymes, including protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B, also called calcineurin). Increasing RCS phosphorylation blocked GPCR-and PP2B-mediated suppression of L-type Ca2+ currents in striatal neurons. Conversely, genetic deletion of RCS significantly increased this modulation. Through a molecular mechanism that amplifies GPCR- and PKA-mediated signaling and attenuates GPCR- and PP2B-mediated signaling, RCS synergistically increases the phosphorylation of key proteins whose phosphorylation is regulated by PKA and PP2B.
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