A New Educational Framework to Improve Lifelong Learning for Cardiologists

Akhil Narang, Poonam Velagapudi, Bharath Rajagopalan, Bryan LeBude, Aaron P. Kithcart, David Snipelisky, Shashank S. Sinha*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Lifelong learning is essential for the practicing cardiologist. Present lifelong learning mechanisms are stagnant and at risk for not meeting the needs of currently practicing cardiologists. With the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease, growing complexity of patient care, and ongoing pressures of nonclinical responsibilities, educational programming must evolve to meet the demands of the contemporary cardiovascular professional. A paradigm shift, replete with modern and practical educational tools, is needed in the lifelong learning armamentarium. Emerging evidence of novel educational strategies in graduate medical education supports the promise of broader application of these tools to different stages of professional life. In this commentary from the Fellows-in-Training Section Leadership Council, the authors propose 3 novel educational tools—personalized learning, adaptive learning, and the flipped classroom—to improve lifelong learning to meet the educational needs of fellows-in-training to practicing cardiologists alike.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)454-462
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 30 2018


  • adaptive learning
  • fellows-in-training
  • flipped classroom
  • graduate medical education
  • personalized learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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