A phase-field study of the aluminizing of nickel

T. Philippe*, D. Erdeniz, D. C. Dunand, P. W. Voorhees

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


A quantitative phase-field approach for multiphase systems that is based upon CALPHAD free energies is used to model the aluminization of nickel wires, wherein vapour-phase alloying is used to deposit Al on the surface of the Ni wire and then the wire is annealed so that to remove all Al gradients and achieve a homogenous Ni-Al alloy. Both processes are modelled and numerical results are compared with experiments. It is found that the kinetics of both processes is controlled by bulk diffusion. During aluminization at 1273 K, formation and growth of intermetallics, Ni2Al3 NiAl and Ni3Al, are strongly dependent on the Al content in the vapour phase. Ni2Al3 growth is very fast compared with NiAl and Ni3Al. It is also found that an intermediate Al content in the vapour phase is preferable for aluminization, since the Ni2Al3 coating thickness is difficult to control. Ni2Al3 is found to disappear in a few minutes during homogenization at 1373 K. Thereafter, the NiAl phase, in which the composition is highly non-uniform after aluminization, continues growing until the supersaturation in this phase vanishes. Then, NiAl coating disappears concomitantly with the growth of Ni3Al, which disappears thereafter. Finally, the Al concentration profile in Ni(Al) homogenizes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)935-947
Number of pages13
JournalPhilosophical Magazine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Mar 24 2015


  • Phase-field method
  • coatings
  • diffusion
  • phase transformations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics

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