Background: Preoperative autologous blood donation is commonly performed to meet potential perioperative transfusion needs and is a common practice prior to total hip arthroplasty. Using standardized transfusion guidelines, we prospectively analyzed the effectiveness of preoperative autologous donation as a method for decreasing allogeneic transfusion among patients undergoing unilateral primary total hip replacement who were eligible to donate autologous blood. Methods: Patients who were scheduled for primary total hip replacement surgery and who had a preoperative baseline hemoglobin level ≥120 g/L were randomized either to donate two units of blood (autologous donors) or not to donate any blood (nondonors). The donors and nondonors were compared with regard to demographic data, blood-loss volumes, hemoglobin measurements, and transfusion rates. Randomization continued until data were obtained from at least forty patients per treatment group. Results: Of the ninety-six patients who completed the study, forty-two were autologous donors and fifty-four were nondonors. There were no significant differences between the donors and nondonors with regard to age, male:female ratio, estimated blood volume, baseline physical condition, or operative blood loss. The hemoglobin values at the time of enrollment (baseline), at the time of hospital discharge, and six weeks postoperatively were not significantly different between the two groups, although values at the time of admission (129 ± 13 g/L versus 138 ± 12 g/L) and in the recovery room (104 ± 12 g/L versus 115 ± 13 g/L) were significantly lower in the autologous donor group (p < 0.05). No patient in either group required an allogeneic transfusion. Twenty-nine (69%) of the forty-two donors received an autologous transfusion. Thirty-four (41%) of eighty-two autologous units were wasted. At a charge of $379 per autologous unit, there was an additional cost of $758 for each patient in the donor group. Conclusions: Preoperative autologous donation provided no benefit for nonanemic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement surgery. Preoperative autologous donation increased the likelihood of autologous transfusion, wastage of predonated units, and costs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine