Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common syndrome with limited therapies and an unknown etiology. Previously, our laboratory has defined a potential role for pathogenic infection in disease onset. Intra-urethral infection with a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain isolated from a CP/CPPS patient, CP1, induces prostatic inflammation and tactile allodynia in mice. We have also demonstrated that a prostate specific Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial isolate, NPI (non-pain inducing), from a healthy subject reduces pain and inflammation in an experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) murine model. Here we focus on the interplay between these human isolates in the context of prostatitis development and resolution. NOD/ShiLtJ mice were inoculated with either NP1 or CP1, or combinations of both. Infection with CP1 induced pelvic tactile allodynia after 7 days, while NPI instillation alone induced no such response. Instillation with NPI 7 days following CP1 infection resolved pelvic tactile allodynia and prophylactic instillation 7 days prior to CPI infection prevented its onset. Prophylactic NPI instillation also prevented CP1 colonization of both prostate and bladder tissues. In vitro analyses revealed that CP1 and NPI do not directly inhibit the growth or invasive potential of one another. Immunological analyses revealed that specific markers associated with CP1-induced pelvic allodynia were decreased upon NPI treatment or repressed by prophylactic colonization. This study demonstrates that a commensal bacterial isolate can inhibit the colonization, pain responses, and immunological activation to uropathogenic bacteria, emphasizing the power of a healthy prostatic microflora in controlling health and disease.
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