A regression and boundary-crossing-based model for the perception of delayed stiffness

Ilana Nisky*, Ferdinando A. Mussa-Ivaldi, Amir Karniel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


The stiffness of the environment with which we come in contact is the local derivative of a force field. The boundary of an elastic field is a singular region where local stiffness is ill defined. We found that subjects interacting with delayed force fields tend to underestimate stiffness if they do not move across the boundary. In contrast, they tend to overestimate stiffness when they move across the elastic field boundary. We propose a unifying computational model of stiffness perception based on an active process that combines the concurrent operations of a force and of a position control system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2
Pages (from-to)73-83
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Haptics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2008


  • Control theory
  • Human factors
  • Human information processing
  • Neuroscience
  • Perception and psychophysics
  • Telemanipulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


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